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Science Daily: News Articles in Science, Health, Environment Technology

Breaking science news and articles on global warming, extrasolar planets, stem cells, bird flu, autism, nanotechnology, dinosaurs, evolution -- the latest discoveries in astronomy, anthropology, biology, chemistry, climate environment, computers, engineering, health medicine, math, physics, psychology, technology, and more -- from the world's leading universities and research organizations. id=metasummary ScienceDaily -- the Internet's premier science news web site -- brings you the latest discoveries in science, health & medicine, the environment, space, technology, and computers, from the world's leading universities and research institutions. Updated several times a day, Science Daily also offers free search of its archive of more than 80,000 stories, as well as related articles, images, videos, books, and journal references in hundreds of different topics, including astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, geology, mathematics, physics, and more.



New second line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer is effective and safe  

A randomized trial in 650 patients has confirmed the safety and efficacy of a new second line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer.

2017-11-18 16:14:38
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Deletion of a stem cell factor promotes traumatic brain injury recovery in mice  

Researchers found that conditional deletion of Sox2 - the gene encoding the SOX2 stem cell transcription factor - and the associated dampening of astrocyte reactivity appear to promote functional recovery, including behavioral recovery, after traumatic brain injury.

2017-11-17 19:53:41
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Cardiorespiratory fitness is essential to reduce risk of coronary heart disease  

New findings emphasize the importance of measuring and maintaining aerobic fitness.

2017-11-17 19:51:29
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Small changes to organ procurement system could lead to more life-saving transplants  

Slight changes to the system for allocating deceased-donor kidneys could result in higher rates of organ procurement and lead to more kidney transplants across the country, according to new research.

2017-11-17 19:07:19
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Breakthrough could launch organic electronics beyond cell phone screens  

A new discovery points the way to more widespread use of an advanced technology generally known as organic electronics.

2017-11-17 19:07:16
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Hibernating ground squirrels provide clues to new stroke treatments  

In the fight against brain damage caused by stroke, researchers have turned to an unlikely source of inspiration: hibernating ground squirrels. While the animals' brains experience dramatically reduced blood flow during hibernation, just like human patients after a certain type of stroke, the squirrels emerge from their extended naps suffering no ill effects. Now, scientists have identified a potential drug that could grant the same resilience to stroke patients.

2017-11-17 19:07:12
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A mom's support helps a child learn to handle negative emotions, but what if mom is distressed?  

When children become upset, showing negative emotions or behaviors, some parents become distressed, while others are able to talk their child through the difficult situation. Studies have shown that a mothers' reaction -- positive or negative -- to her child's negative emotions can predict whether her child develops the ability to effectively regulate his emotions and behavior. A new study explores potential predictors of mothers' supportive or non-supportive behavior during emotional challenges

2017-11-17 19:07:08
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A walk at the mall or the park? New study shows, for moms and daughters, a walk in the park is best  

A family studies researchers believed that if the attention restoration theory, which describes how interaction with natural environments can reduce mental fatigue and restore attention, worked for individuals it might also work for families to help facilitate more positive family interactions and family cohesion. They tested their theory by looking at sets of moms and daughters who were asked to take a walk together in nature and a walk in a mall.

2017-11-17 19:07:05
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Archaeological research on social inequality published  

The origins of social inequality might lie in the remnants of ancient Eurasia's agricultural societies, according to a new article.

2017-11-17 19:07:02
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Like a baby: The vicious cycle of childhood obesity and snoring  

Scientists looked at the relationships among maternal snoring, childhood snoring and children's metabolic characteristics -- including body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance, which reflects future risk for developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease -- in approximately 1,100 children followed from gestation through early adolescence.

2017-11-17 15:22:29
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How a poorly explored immune cell may impact cancer immunity and immunotherapy  

The immune cells that are trained to fight off the body's invaders can become defective. It's what allows cancer to develop. So most research has targeted these co-called effector T-cells. But a new study takes a step back and considers: What if the problem isn't with the effector T-cells but starts higher up the cellular chain?

2017-11-17 14:18:01
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Flu vaccine prevents hospitalization in children, study shows  

Children vaccinated against influenza are significantly less likely to experience serious complications from the virus that could land them in hospital, new research has found.

2017-11-17 14:17:59
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A photosynthetic organism's 'Water World'  

Following the path of radicals and being able to identify many damaged residues because of incredibly accurate, expeditious and sensitive mass spectrometry, three scientists studied the great granddaddy of all photosynthetic organisms -- a strain of cyanobacteria -- to develop the first experimental map of that organism's water world.

2017-11-17 14:17:56
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Interstellar space probes: Where's the brakes?  

With a miniaturized space probe capable of being accelerated to a quarter of the speed of light, we could reach Alpha Centauri, our nearest star, in 20 to 50 years. However, without a mechanism to slow it down, the space probe could only collect data from the star and its planets as it zoomed past. A theoretical physicist has now examined whether interstellar spacecraft can be decelerated using 'magnetic sails'.

2017-11-17 14:17:51
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A sub-desert savanna spread across Madrid 14 million years ago  

The current landscape of Madrid city and its vicinity was really different 14 million years ago. A semi-desert savanna has been inferred for the center of the Iberian Peninsula in the middle Miocene. This ecosystem was characterized by a very arid tropical climatic regime with up to ten months of drought per year, according to a recent paper. Scientists reached such conclusions after comparing mammal fauna with Africa and Asia ones.

2017-11-17 14:17:48
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Strain-free epitaxy of germanium film on mica  

Germanium was the material of choice in the early history of electronic devices, and due to its high charge carrier mobility, it's making a comeback. It's generally grown on expensive single-crystal substrates, adding another challenge to making it sustainably viable for most applications. To address this aspect, researchers demonstrate an epitaxy method that incorporates van der Waals' forces to grow germanium on mica.

2017-11-17 14:17:46
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Brain activity buffers against worsening anxiety  

Boosting activity in brain areas related to thinking and problem-solving may also protect against worsening anxiety, suggests a new study. Using noninvasive brain imaging, the researchers found that at-risk people were less likely to develop anxiety if they had higher activity in a region of the brain responsible for complex mental operations. The results may be a step towards tailoring psychological therapies to the specific brain functioning of individual patients.

2017-11-17 14:17:43
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Inner clock: Biologists research the mechanism of an auxiliary clock  

In December, the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology will be awarded for the identification of genes that control the inner clock. The honored academics examined fruit flies to determine the biorhythm.

2017-11-17 14:17:40
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Taking a spin on plasma space tornadoes with NASA observations  

Tornado-like swirls of space plasma create tumultuous boundaries in the near-Earth environment, letting dangerous high-energy particles slip into near Earth space, new NASA mission results show.

2017-11-17 14:17:38
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Heavy nitrogen molecules reveal planetary-scale tug-of-war  

Researchers have discovered a planetary-scale tug-of-war between life, deep Earth and the upper atmosphere that is expressed in atmospheric nitrogen.

2017-11-17 14:17:35
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eDNA tool detects invasive clams before they become a nuisance  

When seeking a cure for a disease, early detection is often the key. The same is true for eliminating invasive species. Identifying their presence in a lake before they are abundant is vital. A recent study successfully used environmental DNA to detect invasive clams in California and Nevada lakes. Researchers believe this tool can help identify pests before they become a problem.

2017-11-17 14:17:32
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Investigating patterns of degeneration in Alzheimer's disease  

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known to cause memory loss and cognitive decline, but other functions of the brain can remain intact. The reasons cells in some brain regions degenerate while others are protected is largely unknown. Researchers have found that factors encoded in the DNA of brain cells contribute to the patterns of degeneration, or vulnerability, in AD.

2017-11-17 14:17:28
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New computational method provides optimized design of wind up toys  

A team of leading computer scientists has developed a novel computational system to aid the design and fabrication of wind-up toys, focusing on automating the intricate interior machinery responsible for the toys' wind-up motion.

2017-11-17 14:17:26
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Making it easier to recycle plastics  

Researchers report new approaches could dramatically increase the amount of plastic waste that can be successfully recycled.

2017-11-17 14:17:23
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Drones could help crop management take off, research shows  

Initial results of an ongoing study show that aerial imagery produced by multi-spectral sensors as well as less-expensive digital cameras may improve accuracy and efficiency of plant stand assessment in cotton.

2017-11-17 14:17:20
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Decrease in sunshine, increase in rickets  

Britain's increasing cloudiness during the summer could be an important reason for the mysterious increase in rickets among British children over the past few decades, suggests new research.

2017-11-17 14:17:15
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Mathematician's study of 'swarmalators' could direct future science  

How does the Japanese tree frog figure into the latest work of a noted mathematician? As it turns out, quite prominently. Researchers used the curious mating ritual of male Japanese tree frogs as inspiration for their exploration of 'swarmalators' -- their term for systems in which both synchronization and swarming occur together.

2017-11-17 14:17:13
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These ring-tailed lemurs raise a 'stink' when they flirt with potential mates  

Stink-flirting among ring-tailed lemurs come at a cost, but may also influence females in choosing a mate, suggests new research.

2017-11-17 14:17:10
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When to fish: Timing matters for fish that migrate to reproduce  

A new study points to yet another human factor that is hampering the ability of fish to reproduce: the timing of our fishing seasons. The study considers how the timing of fishing efforts might disproportionately target certain fish and change the life history patterns of entire populations.

2017-11-17 14:17:07
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Progesterone to fight preterm birth  

A new study provides additional support for treatment with vaginal progesterone to reduce the risk of preterm birth, neonatal complications and infant death in pregnant women with a short cervix. A shortened cervix is the most powerful predictor of preterm birth.

2017-11-17 11:54:52
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Carefully crafted light pulses control neuron activity  

Specially tailored, ultrafast pulses of light can trigger neurons to fire and could one day help patients with light-sensitive circadian or mood problems, according to a new study. This study is among the first demonstrations of using coherent control to regulate function in a living cell.

2017-11-17 11:54:49
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Age, gut bacteria contribute to MS disease progression, according to study  

Gut bacteria at a young age can contribute to multiple sclerosis disease onset and progression, new research indicates.

2017-11-17 11:54:46
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Electrochemistry opens up novel access to important classes of substances  

Chemists have succeeded in overcoming the problem of electrochemical polymer formation and in developing a sustainable and efficient synthesis strategy for these important products for the first time.

2017-11-17 10:38:26
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Seagrass is a key fishing ground globally  

New research demonstrates that seagrass meadows are important fishing grounds all around the globe. The work highlights that there is an urgent need to start appreciating and understanding this role to be able to build more sustainable fisheries. A study examines the global extent to which these underwater meadows support fishing activity.

2017-11-17 10:38:23
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What grosses out a chimpanzee? The origins of disgust  

Chimps show increased latencies to feed, and tendencies to maintain greater distances from possible contaminants and/or outright refusals to consume food in test conditions, hinting at the origins of disgust in humans.

2017-11-17 10:38:20
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Asthma attacks reduced in tree-lined urban neighborhoods  

People living in polluted urban areas are far less likely to be admitted to hospital with asthma when there are lots of trees in their neighborhood, a new study has found.

2017-11-17 10:38:14
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No more deer in the headlights: Study finds large mammals do use road crossing structures  

A pilot study finds that large mammals are more likely to use wildlife crossing structures than move past a random location in the surrounding habitat. Animal movement also varied between crossing structures in different locations, suggesting that location might be more important than design. These findings are a first step towards a better understanding of the effectiveness of wildlife crossing structures.

2017-11-17 10:38:11
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First-graders fitter than expected  

Childhood obesity is often attributed to a lack of exercise. So what about sports among elementary school students? Scientists have pursued this question and collected the results of fitness tests for first-year students over a period of one decade. Their study shows that students did not lose their strength. Speed or balance even increased over the time of 10 years. One change was in the boys, whose endurance decreased compared to the girls of the same age.

2017-11-17 10:38:08
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Protein key to cancer cells ability to spread identified  

Scientists have made a discovery that could reduce the spread of cancer by hindering a protein that binds cancer cells together and allows them to invade tissues. The groundbreaking study identified a protein, known as cadherin-22, as a potential factor in cancer metastasis, or spread, and showed that hindering it decreased the adhesion and invasion rate of breast and brain cancer cells by up to 90 percent.

2017-11-17 10:38:05
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Plant respiration could become a bigger feedback on climate than expected  

New research suggests that plant respiration is a larger source of carbon emissions than previously thought, and warns that as the world warms, this may reduce the ability of Earth's land surface to absorb emissions due to fossil fuel burning.

2017-11-17 10:38:00
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To reduce risk of crashing, pick roads with wide shoulders and high speed limits  

A solid median, wide shoulders, minimal hills -- and a high speed limit? Researchers explore freeway features that minimize crash risk.

2017-11-17 10:37:57
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Using eDNA to identify the breeding habitat of endangered species  

Using wide-ranging eDNA analysis combined with traditional collection survey methods, researchers have identified the breeding site of critically endangered fish species Acheilognathus typus in the mainstream of Omono River in Akita Prefecture, Japan.

2017-11-17 10:37:53
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'Ion billiards' cue novel material synthesis method  

A team of researchers has developed a novel material synthesis method called proton-driven ion introduction (PDII) which utilizes a phenomenon similar to 'ion billiards.' The new method could pave the way for creating numerous new materials, thus drastically advancing materials sciences.

2017-11-17 10:37:51
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The future of cell culture: A new continuous bioprocess developed  

A revolutionary technique to allow the continuous production and collection of cells has been developed by scientists.

2017-11-17 10:37:48
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Link between obesity and cancer is not widely recognized  

A new study has shown that the majority of people in the United Kingdom do not understand the connection between weight issues and cancer. Obesity is associated with thirteen types of cancer, including those of the breast, kidney, bowel, and womb. However, after surveying 3293 adults, taken as representative of the UK population, researchers found that only a quarter of respondents were aware of the link between obesity and cancer.

2017-11-17 10:37:45
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Hydrogen fuel from water by harnessing red and near-infrared regions of sunlight  

Scientists have synthesized a compound that absorbs near-infrared light to produce hydrogen from water. The compound contains three ruthenium atoms connected by an organic molecule. The absorbed light stimulates electrons to 'jump' into orbitals that do not exist in other, similar compounds. This is the first successful use of infrared light to reduce water into hydrogen, which can be used for energy conversion and storage, and other industrial purposes in a future sustainable energy society.

2017-11-17 10:37:42
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Brain astrocytes linked to Alzheimer's disease  

Astrocytes, the supporting cells of the brain, could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a new study. This is the first time researchers discovered a direct association between astrocytes and AD.

2017-11-17 10:37:40
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Could this protein protect people against coronary artery disease?  

The buildup of plaque in the heart's arteries is an unfortunate part of aging. But by studying the genetic makeup of people who maintain clear arteries into old age, researchers have identified a possible genetic basis for coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as potential new opportunities to prevent it.

2017-11-17 10:36:57
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Solar minimum surprisingly constant  

Using more than half a century of observations, astronomers have discovered that the microwaves coming from the Sun at the minimums of the past five solar cycles have been the same each time, despite large differences in the maximums of the cycles.

2017-11-17 08:58:55
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Grade inflation adds thousands to the cost of a family home, study finds  

Grade inflation at English primary schools can increase the price of surrounding houses by up to £7,000, according to early research from economists.

2017-11-17 08:58:53
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Breakthrough discovery in diagnostic tools that can replace commonly used and fragile antibodies  

Experts have announced the development of polymeric materials with molecular recognition capabilities which hold the potential to outperform natural antibodies in various diagnostic applications

2017-11-17 08:58:03
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European forests might not be realizing their full potential  

European forest managers can have their cake and eat it, because according to a new study maximizing timber production in a forest does not necessarily have to come at a cost of reduced species diversity or the capacity to regulate climate change by the same forest. However most European forests fall well below their possible maximum levels of these three capacities.

2017-11-17 08:58:01
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Employees want to sit down less and walk more during work days  

Desk-based workers would like to spend less time sitting down and more time walking or doing physical activity as part of their working day, research suggests.

2017-11-17 08:53:30
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When male voles drink alcohol, but their partner doesn't, their relationship suffers  

Researchers find that the relationship between prairie vole couples suffers when the male has access to alcohol, but his female partner doesn't - similar to what has been observed in human couples. The researchers also found changes in a specific brain region in the male voles. The results could help researchers find strategies to overcome the negative effects of alcohol on human relationships.

2017-11-17 08:52:58
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Novel therapeutic target discovered for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer  

A new protein has been identified in a common subtype of breast cancer which can potentially offer more effective therapies for the future.

2017-11-17 08:52:50
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Risk of distracted driving predicted by age, gender, personality and driving frequency  

The first study of how personal traits affect driver distraction finds that young men, extroverted or neurotic people, and people who drive more often are more likely to report being distracted during driving, while older women and those who feel they could control their distracted behavior are less likely to report distraction. The study also proposes future directions for interventions to reduce distracted driving.

2017-11-17 08:52:35
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A popular tool to trace Earth's oxygen history can give false positives  

If someone cries 'Eureka!' because it looks like oxygen appeared in Earth's ancient atmosphere long before the body of evidence indicated, be careful. If it was a chromium isotope system reading that caused the enthusiasm, it might need to be curbed.

2017-11-17 08:52:19
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Evaluation of novel hybrid membranes for carbon capture  

Hybrid materials known as mixed matrix membranes are considered a promising approach to capture carbon dioxide and mitigate against global warming. These materials are derived from a polymer combined with porous nanoparticles. We show that materials prepared using porous organic polymers are resilient to the acidic impurities present in industrial gas streams, whereas other hybrid materials fail. This means that they can be effective in carbon capture applications where these impurities are pres

2017-11-17 08:52:11
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Transforming greenhouse gases: New 'supercatalyst' to recycle carbon dioxide and methane  

Engineers have developed a new and cost-effective catalyst to recycle two of the main causes behind climate change -- carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4).

2017-11-17 08:51:56
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New theory rewrites opening moments of Chernobyl disaster  

A brand-new theory of the opening moments during the Chernobyl disaster, the most severe nuclear accident in history, based on additional analysis.

2017-11-17 08:51:30
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Dog ownership linked to lower mortality rate  

A team of scientists have used national registries of more than 3.4 million Swedes aged 40 to 80 to study the association between dog ownership and cardiovascular health. Their study shows that dog owners had a lower risk of death due to cardiovascular disease or to other causes during the 12-year follow-up.

2017-11-17 08:51:15
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Anti-malaria drug shows promise as Zika virus treatment  

A medication used to prevent and treat malaria may also be effective for Zika virus, scientists have discovered. The drug, called chloroquine, has a long history of safe use during pregnancy, and is relatively inexpensive.

2017-11-17 08:51:05
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New therapy lessens impact of mistreatment at a young age  

Certain drugs can prevent and reduce changes to the brain caused by mistreatment at an early age, suggests new research.

2017-11-16 19:00:12
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Noninvasive brain imaging shows readiness of trainees to perform operations  

While simulation platforms have been used to train surgeons before they enter an actual operating room (OR), few studies have evaluated how well trainees transfer those skills from the simulator to the OR. Now, a study that used noninvasive brain imaging to evaluate brain activity has found that simulator-trained medical students successfully transferred those skills to operating on cadavers and were faster than peers who had no simulator training.

2017-11-16 19:00:05
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A new way to store thermal energy  

A new phase-change material provides a way to store heat in a stable chemical form, then release it later on demand using light as a trigger.

2017-11-16 18:59:59
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New test to measure the effectiveness of CF drugs  

A new laboratory model has been created to measure and compare the responses of CF and normal airway cells to CF-related infectious/inflammatory factors.

2017-11-16 18:59:56
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Aquatic plant may help remove contaminants from lakes  

A tiny aquatic plant called duckweed might be a viable option for remove phosphorus, nitrates, nitrites and even heavy metals from lakes, ponds and slow-moving waterbodies.

2017-11-16 18:39:07
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Bryozoans: Fossil fills missing evolutionary link  

Scientists recently announced the discovery of a missing evolutionary link -- a fossil of the first known member of the modern bryozoans to grow up into a structure.

2017-11-16 17:24:56
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Unlocking the secrets of Ebola  

Scientists have identified a set of biomarkers that indicate which patients infected with the Ebola virus are most at risk of dying from the disease. The results come from one of the most in-depth studies ever of blood samples from patients with Ebola. Researchers found 11 biomarkers that distinguish fatal infections from non-fatal ones and two that, when screened for early upon symptom onset, accurately predict which patients are likely to die.

2017-11-16 17:24:52
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Cross off that 'to do' list, study shows all daily activity can prolong life  

That 'to do' list of chores and errands could actually provide a variety of health benefits. The study found women over age 65 who engaged in regular light physical activity had a reduction in the risk of mortality.

2017-11-16 17:24:49
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Using social media big data to combat prescription drug crisis  

Researchers conducted a critical review of existing literature to determine whether social media big data can be used to understand communication and behavioral patterns related to prescription drug abuse. Their study found that with proper research methods and attention to privacy and ethical issues, social media big data can reveal important information concerning drug abuse, such as user-reported side effects, drug cravings, emotional states, and risky behaviors.

2017-11-16 16:30:32
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Hot spots of tick-borne diseases in Mongolia  

Given the critical role livestock play in Mongolia, transmission of tick-borne diseases can have very real health and economic implications for livestock and herders. Researchers have explored the interaction between nomadic herders, the livestock they own, and the tick-borne diseases they are exposed to.

2017-11-16 16:30:28
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Biological mechanism of a leading cause of childhood blindness revealed in new research  

Scientists have revealed the pathology of cells and structures stricken by optic nerve hypoplasia, a leading cause of childhood blindness in developed nations.

2017-11-16 16:30:25
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A new way to reduce surgery complications stemming from high blood sugar  

Using a different marker to track a patient's glycemic levels could help improve outcomes after surgery for diabetic and non-diabetic patients alike.

2017-11-16 16:30:16
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Solar flare pulses at sun and Earth detected  

Two recent studies show how solar flares exhibit pulses or oscillations in the amount of energy being sent out. Such research provides new insights on the origins of these massive solar flares and the space weather they produce. This is key information as humans and robotic missions venture out into the solar system, farther and farther from Earth.

2017-11-16 16:29:12
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Study raises possibility of naturally acquired immunity against Zika virus  

Birth defects in babies born infected with Zika virus remain a major health concern. Now, scientists suggest the possibility that some women in high-risk Zika regions may already be protected and not know it. New research performed in mice, shows women who develop symptom-free Zika infections may be able to acquire immunity that would protect them from future infections and their offspring in a future pregnancy.

2017-11-16 14:21:54
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Old World monkeys could be key to a new, powerful rheumatoid arthritis therapy  

A peptide only found in Old World monkeys has the potential to stop rheumatoid arthritis progression better than established treatments, new research indicates.

2017-11-16 14:21:48
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How Snapdragons keep their color: Signposting trick reveals evolutionary mechanism  

A study of the colour patterns among wild flowers in a mountain valley has yielded a clue about how nature controls fundamental evolutionary change in all species.

2017-11-16 14:21:46
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Separating side effects could hold key for safer opioids  

Opioid pain relievers can be extremely effective in relieving pain, but can carry a high risk of addiction and ultimately overdose when breathing is suppressed and stops. Scientists have discovered a way to separate these two effects -- pain relief and breathing -- opening a window of opportunity to make effective pain medications without the risk of respiratory failure.

2017-11-16 14:21:39
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Finding Majoranas  

Nano-'hashtags' could be the key to generating the highly sought Majorana quasiparticle, report scientists.

2017-11-16 14:21:37
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Computer program finds new uses for old drugs  

Researchers have developed a computer program to find new indications for old drugs. The computer program, called DrugPredict, matches existing data about FDA-approved drugs to diseases, and predicts potential drug efficacy. In a recent study, the researchers successfully translated DrugPredict results into the laboratory, and showed common pain medications -- like aspirin -- can kill patient-derived epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

2017-11-16 14:21:34
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New imaging technique peers inside living cells  

Called Ultrasound Bioprobe, a non-invasive approach allows researchers to view sub-cellular structures and their mechanical behavior at nanoscale resolution.

2017-11-16 14:21:29
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Women-run start-ups hampered by bias among male investors, study finds  

Researchers examined data for nearly 18,000 start-ups and found that companies started by women have a harder time finding funding because male investors prefer companies started by men.

2017-11-16 14:21:26
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How the immune system identifies invading bacteria  

Never-before-seen images of mouse immune system proteins and bacterial bits reveal an inspection strategy that identifies pathogens.

2017-11-16 14:20:58
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On the origins of star stuff: Shedding new light on origin of anti-matter  

Astronomers have used a high-altitude observatory in Mexico to better understand where gamma rays come from. More than 300 massive water tanks sit waiting at the site for cascades of particles initiated by high-energy packets of light called gamma rays -- many of which have more than a million times the energy of a dental X-ray. When these gamma rays smash into the upper atmosphere, they blast apart atoms in the air, producing a shower of particles that moves at nearly the speed of light toward

2017-11-16 14:20:46
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Passenger pigeon genome shows effects of natural selection in a huge population  

The passenger pigeon is famous for the enormity of its historical population and for its rapid extinction in the face of mass slaughter by humans. Yet it remains a mystery why the species wasn't able to survive in a few small populations. One theory, consistent with the findings of a new study, suggests that passenger pigeons were well adapted to living in huge flocks, but poorly adapted to living in smaller groups.

2017-11-16 14:20:36
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Paraplegic rats walk and regain feeling after stem cell treatment  

Paralyzed rats implanted with engineered tissue containing human stem cells were able to walk independently and regained sensory perception in their hind legs and tail. The implanted rats also show some degree of healing in their spinal cords. The research demonstrates the great potential of stem cells to treat spinal cord injury.

2017-11-16 13:28:00
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Bacterium in a beetle makes it a leaf-eater  

A leaf-eating beetle has evolved a symbiotic relationship that allows the insect to break down pectin. The findings on the novel function of the bacterium, which has a surprisingly tiny genome -- much smaller than previous reports on the minimum size required for an organism not subsisting within a host cell.

2017-11-16 13:27:57
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Ancient enzyme could boost power of liquid biopsies to detect and profile cancers  

Researchers are developing a new tool for liquid biopsy that can detect RNA biomarkers from cancer cells in a patient's blood much more accurately and completely than other existing methods. This could soon provide doctors with a more complete picture of an individual's disease, improving their chances of finding the best treatment, while also sparing patients the pain, inconvenience and long wait times associated with surgical biopsies.

2017-11-16 13:27:51
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Stress can lead to risky decisions  

Making decisions that require weighing pros and cons of two choices is dramatically affected by chronic stress, neuroscientists have discovered. In a study of rats and mice, they found stressed animals were far likelier to choose high-risk, high-payoff options. They also found that impairments of a specific brain circuit underlie this abnormal decision making.

2017-11-16 13:27:46
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How the songbird changes its tune  

Researchers have shown how the Bengalese finch, a domesticated songbird, can learn to tweak its song in specific ways depending on context, which could shed light on how the human brain learns to apply different rules depending on the situation, and have implications for understanding human language and movement disorders.

2017-11-16 13:27:39
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5 

Kill switches for engineered microbes gone rogue  

Stable autonomous kill switches ensure biocontainment of living microbes designed as devices for medicine or the environment. New research outlines two new types of kill switches that address these challenges. The new kill switches are self-sufficient and highly stable in bacterial populations that evolve, and they last over many generations. They can ensure that only bacteria with intact synthetic gene circuits survive, or confine bacteria to a target environment at 37°C (body temperature) whi...

2017-11-16 13:27:32
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5 

Diffusion plays unusual signaling role in drosophila embryos, researchers find  

Diffusion plays an unexpected role in cell differentiation during the early stages of development in the embryos of Drosophila, or fruit flies, researchers have found. Instead of spreading a molecular signal out, it was found that diffusion, facilitated through a carrier molecule, actually concentrates the signal in one place.

2017-11-16 13:27:19
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3 

Naturally occurring molecule may help prevent, treat atherosclerosis and gum disease  

Resolvin E1, a molecule produced naturally in the body from an omega -3 fish oil, topically applied on gum tissues not only prevents and treats gum disease, but also decreases the likelihood for advanced arterial atherosclerotic plaques to rupture and form a dangerous thrombus or blood clot, report investigators.

2017-11-16 13:27:16
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4 

Spanking linked to increase in children's behavior problems  

Children who have been spanked by their parents by age 5 show an increase in behavior problems at age 6 and age 8 relative to children who have never been spanked, according to new findings. The study, which uses a statistical technique to approximate random assignment, indicates that this increase in behavior problems cannot be attributed to various characteristics of the child, the parents, or the home environment - rather, it seems to be the specific result of spanking.

2017-11-16 13:27:02
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6 

Why do employees cheat? Too much pressure  

When employees feel their job depends on meeting high benchmarks, some fudge results in order to stay employed, according to a new study.

2017-11-16 13:27:00
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5 

Gene discovery may halt worldwide wheat epidemic  

A gene that enables resistance to a new devastating strain of stem rust, a fungal disease that is hampering wheat production throughout Africa and Asia and threatening food security worldwide, has been identified by scientists.

2017-11-16 13:26:47
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3 

Finding allows gene editing with surgical precision  

A more precise and efficient technology has been created to edit the genomes of living organisms, an ability that is transforming medicine and biotechnology. The new method eliminates some of the drawbacks of genome editing technologies, which enables scientists to insert or eliminate genes within DNA.

2017-11-16 13:24:08
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7 

The stacked color sensor: True colors meet minimization  

Red-sensitive, blue-sensitive and green-sensitive color sensors stacked on top of each other instead of being lined up in a mosaic pattern -- this principle could allow image sensors with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity to light to be created. However, up to now, the reality hasn't quite met expectations. Researchers have now developed a sensor prototype that absorbs light almost optimally -- and which is also cheap to produce.

2017-11-16 11:42:19
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7 

Next-generation atomic clocks may support official timekeeping  

For more than a decade, a research team has been unveiling experimental next-generation atomic clocks. New simulations suggest these clocks may now be reliable and practical enough to start contributing to calibrations that support official US civilian time.

2017-11-16 11:42:13
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5 




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